## Traveling Waves on Transmission System (EE329)

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The line equations: The ideal (no-loss) line, the distortionless line, Line with small losses, Exact solution of the infinite line, Line of finite length, Attenuation and distortion of traveling waves. Reflection of traveling waves: Behaviour of a wave at a transition point, Dissimilar voltage and current waves, Typical cases, current-limiting reactors. Successive reflections: The reflection lattice, Construction and use of the lattice-diagram, Charging of a line from various sources, Reflection between a capacitor and a resistor, Effect of short lengths of cable, Effect of insulator capacitance. Traveling waves on multiconductor systems: The general differential equations of traveling waves, Transition points on multiconductor circuits, multivelocity waves, Surge tests on transmission lines, Physical concept of multivelocity waves, Two-conductor system, Multiconductor system. Theory of ground-wires: Direct stroke to a tower, effect of reflections up and down the tower, Tower grounding. The counterpoise: Multivelocity waves on the counterpoise, Tests on the counterpoise, Successive reflections on the insulated counterpoise. Induced lightning surges: The field gradient, induced surges with ideal ground wires. Arcing grounds: Normal frequency arc extinction – single-phase and three-phase, Oscillatory-frequency arc extinction, High-frequency effects, Interruption of line-charging currents, Cancellation waves, Initiated waves, Steady-state waves, Recovery voltage, Restriking phenomena